A respiratory therapist (RT) is a healthcare profession in which specialists work with patients suffering from either acute or chronic cardiac and respiratory disease. These specialists are termed Respiratory Practitioners in most places internationally but may also be referred to as Respiratory Scientists or Respiratory Therapists. Respiratory practitioners work independently and as part of a team to plan, integrate, and evaluate cardiac and pulmonary care. Respiratory practitioners also recommend intervention and therapeutic methods and serve as a consultation resource for physicians in treatment of patients with respiratory conditions. In the United States oxygen and other medical gas systems, both portable and installed are under the management of the department of Respiratory Care and subsequently by the Respiratory Practitioners within that hospital. A respiratory practitioner is a clinician working alongside physicians, nurses, pharmacists and other members of the medical team providing direct patient care. In most parts of the world a respiratory practitioner must have a degree in cardiopulmonary medicine or respiratory care and may be required to hold an appropriate license to practice.