Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. Anti-inflammatory drugs make up about half of analgesics, remedying pain by reducing inflammation as opposed to opioids, which affect the central nervous system.
Some health professionals advocate the consumption of anti-inflammatory foods as a means of controlling inflammation and promoting health. A typical anti-inflammatory diet includes a well-balanced, varied diet that is high in vegetables and low in refined carbohydrates and fats, such as saturated fats and trans fats. Anti-inflammatory foods include most colorful fruits and vegetables, oily fish (which contain higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids), nuts, seeds, and certain spices, such as ginger. Extra-virgin olive oil contains the chemical oleocanthal that acts similarly to ibuprofen. Those following an anti-inflammatory diet will avoid refined oils and sugars, and show a preference for so-called anti-inflammatory foods in their meal choices.
A diet high in vegetables and low in refined carbohydrates and saturated and trans fats may enhance the creation of prostaglandins. There are three main types of prostaglandins: PG-E1 and PG-E3, which have an anti-inflammatory properties, and PG-E2, which promotes inflammation.
Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to disrupt inflammation cell signaling pathways by binding to the GPR120 receptor.